the welfare and rights of research participants/subjects and to reflect the basic ethical values of respect for persons, beneficence and justice.
Core Ethical Principles
Four universal principles constitute the basis for ethics in especially human research viz.:
1. The principle of Non-Malfeasance: Research must not cause harm.
2. The principle of Beneficence: Research should make a positive contribution towards the welfare of people or the participants/subjects.
3. The principle of Autonomy: Research must respect the rights and dignity of participants.
4. The principle of Justice: Fair distribution of the benefits and risks of research amongst people.
Rights of Participants
1. Participants must be valued as persons in their own right worthy of protection and respect.
2. Informed and understood consent obtained.
3. Informed on anticipated findings use.
4. Relevance of research to participants must be clarified.
Research Involving Special Groups
Research in these groups requires special consideration i.e.:
4. Pregnant women
6. Persons in dependent relationships
7. Mentally impaired persons
8. Vulnerable communities